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Is Your Bus Exhausting? Stevens Institute of Technology

 

TEACHERS: Smog City Modeling

Objectives
Students will be able to:
  • utilize an interactive smog visualization application, Smog City
  • see the relationship between ozone levels and variables such as population levels and emissions

Materials

 

Background:

Smog City is an interactive air pollution simulator that demonstrates how personal choices, environmental factors, and land use can contribute to air pollution. While using the Smog City application, the user is in control so the “visit” can be a healthy or unhealthy experience. Users can see how ground level ozone, the biggest part of summertime smog, increases or decreases depending on the time of day in Smog City. Since ozone can irritate respiratory systems, cause breathing difficulty, coughing, and chest pain, knowing how and why ozone forms and what can be done is important to the residents of Smog City and everyone else on the planet.

Cautionary Note: Relationships between ozone, emissions, and weather conditions are very complex. Smog City's relationships are based on a simplified model of complex atmospheric processes in Sacramento, California, therefore there is no guarantee that the model is scientifically accurate for this or other regions. Results only illustrate general behavior of air pollution processes, and cannot be used for any quantitative purpose or in detailed planning of future control strategies.

Ozone levels depicted in Smog City are estimated by simulating the air quality over Sacramento, California using a computerized model of the region. The computer model creates an imaginary box over the area to represent the atmosphere above Sacramento. Air quality conditions in the box are simulated to account for both human influences and natural factors that affect ozone formation. Each simulation represents one day. In the morning, the box has healthy air quality conditions. As each hour of the day passes, pollutants from human activities such as industry and operating cars and trucks, are released into Smog City's atmosphere. In this model, pollutants take into account variations in human activity, such as morning rush-hour traffic and movement and mixing, which are influenced by weather characteristics such as wind speed, sunlight, and temperature.

One weather characteristic that can have influence over ground level ozone production is the presence of a temperature inversion layer.  Temperature inversion layers typically form when the temperature of the ground rapidly decreases as the sun sets in the evening. The cooling of the ground subsequently cools the air directly above it. This cool layer of air is heavier than the warmer air above, causing the cool air to become trapped close to the ground. This is the opposite of what normally occurs, air temperature decreasing with altitude, so it is called an inversion.  Temperature inversion layers can occur between 100 to a thousand feet above the ground depending on the weather conditions. Inversions act like a cap on the atmosphere causing air pollutants from human activities to build up in the cool air trapped under the inversion layer, resulting in an increase of air pollution levels. In some places when there is little or no wind, inversion layers can linger for several days.

The development of Smog City was a collaborative community outreach effort between public agencies and private sector consultants. Funded by a grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Smog City is a copyright of the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District. Smog City is authorized for use as an educational and demonstration tool and may be downloaded for non-profit use by the general public, other agencies, associations, and educational institutions. Smog City: Copyright 1999 Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District.

In this lesson, students will create their own investigation using the ozone modeling tool. For the investigation, the student must create a hypothesis, design the experiment, run the experiment and discuss the results. The Procedure section contains directions for using the Smog City model.

For additional information about the scientific method and the importance of controls in an experiment, view The Principles of Science example.

 

Procedure

  1. Access the Smog City web site (http://www.smogcity.com/).
     
  2. Click "Run Smog City” from the left-side navigation bar.
    • NOTE: Smog City is a JAVA Applet that runs in your Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator browser. For offline use, follow the Download link for instructions on downloading Smog City to your computer.
       
  3. Once Smog City loads to your computer, take note of the following areas of Smog City, including Weather Condition, Population Level, and Emissions Levels. All areas have “clickable” choices. Mouse-over or click on the choices.
    • NOTE: in the status bar at the bottom of the your browser, there is information about each choice when the mouse is hovering over one of the settings.
       
  4. Click the Red “Reset” button.
     
  5. Look at all the choices again. Notice how each of the choices are pre-set to a certain level. These are called the default settings. In the chart on your student worksheet (see example below), circle or highlight the default setting for each choice. The first setting, Maximum Daily Temperature, has already been completed for you.

    Area Name:

    Choices Included in the Area:

    Select Weather Conditions

    Maximum Daily Temperature
    80ºF - 90ºF - 100ºF - 110ºF - 120ºF

    Inversion Layer
    Low inversion - High inversion - No inversion

    ...

  1. Click the Red “Reset” button to make sure that the defaults are set.
     
  2. Click on the Green “Start” button. Record what happens on the Student Worksheet.
    Settings Health Effects at Peak Ozone Level
    • Default
     
  3. Turn all of the Emissions Levels dials (Cars and Trucks, Off Road, Industry, and Consumer Products) down to 1. Leave all other choices at the default settings. Click the Green “Start” button. Record what happens on the Student Worksheet (see HELP for more information).
     
  4. Turn only the Cars and Trucks dial up to 3. Leave all other settings alone as illustrated in the chart below.
     
  5. Click the Green “Start” button and record what happens on the Student Worksheet. Continue to change the settings according to the Student Worksheet and record the results in the table.
    Cars &
    Trucks
    Off Road Industry Consumer
    Products
    Health Effects at Peak Ozone Level
    1 1 1 1  
    3 1 1 1  
    5 1 1 1  
    1 3 1 1  
    1 5 1 1  
  6. Click on the Red “Reset” button.

  7. Again, turn all of the Emissions Levels dials down to 1. Now, turn up the Industry dial up to 3, leave all other settings alone, and click on the Green “Start” button. Record what happens on the Student Worksheet.
     
  8. Continue the same procedure with the Industry dial (increase to 5) and Consumer Products. Answer the questions on the Student Worksheet.

 

 


 
 
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